By Scarlett C.
Before talking about the 5 major Château, we should know how it comes. In 1855, Napoleon III wanted to promote the wines at Paris World Expo, he ordered the Bordeaux wine committee to establish a grading system. Based on the opinions of the nonofficial organization, and the quality of winery, Grand Cru Classes 1855 was born. There are 61 wineries on the list, and these 5 Château are in the Premiers Cru.
認識呢五大酒莊之前, 首先要講下呢五大究竟係點嚟嘅。事源係由1855年拿破崙三世係巴黎世界博覽會入面, 希望將波爾多商會比個酒莊分級名單出嚟，等佢可以推廣佢鍾意嘅葡萄酒。商會將當時嘅民間指標，加上酒莊釀造品質，制定咗呢個1855 Classification分級制度。到依家為止, 一共有61間酒莊榜上有名，而呢五大酒莊就係獲得制度入面一級酒莊嘅地位。
Château Lafite Rothschild
Located in Medoc, which people described it as the best of the best. Gombuad de Lafite owned the Château in 1234. From the 17th century, Ségur bought the whole winery, then Baron James de Rothschild bought it in 1868, his family was the richest family in the world.
Maréchal Richelieu is praised by Louis XV that he looked much younger after drinking Lafite in 1732, he then brought the wine into the Palace of Versailles, and it became the only wine in the palace. In the 18th century, the first prime minister of Great Britain, Robert Walpole is also obsessed with this taste. When Rothschild bought the Château, he reformed the progress, the technique became more accurate and professional, so as to strengthen the stage of No.1.
位於左岸Medoc產區，亦都係No.1中嘅No.1. 1234年由Gombuad de Lafite擁有，自17世紀，Ségur家族買起整個酒莊，包括宅邸在內，然後1868年Baron James de Rothschild男爵買下，佢家族比人話係全球最有錢嘅家族。
1732年, 因為Maréchal Richelieu(地方總督)飲完之後比路易十五世讚佢後生咗25歲，開心到即刻將佢帶入凡爾賽宮，成為「帝王御用佳釀」; 18世紀初，時任首相Robert Walpole 亦非常喜愛Lafite的味道。本身民間評價已經咁高, 入埋1855一級莊, 聲譽更加高。Rothschild入主之後積極改革，令其釀酒技術更加準確和專業，大大鞏固一哥地位。
Château Latour is existed since the 14th century, Nocolas-Alexabdre de Ségur then inherited in 17th. In 1963, the posterity of Ségur sold 75 % stock to Harveys of Bristol and Hallminster Limited. They started the innovation. For the next 30 years, Latour is owned by different British until 1993. It bought by a French Pinault.
He had a forward-looking insight into wine development. In 1960, Latour started to use stainless stain tank and quitted the “wine future” in 2012. The reason behind was to provide the best wine after mature, so they need to take back the dominance. In 2018, Latour received the Organic cultivation certification from the French International Ecological Certification Center. They are wonderful in handling the good balance between classic and innovation.
14世紀已經存在嘅酒莊，17世紀由Nocolas-Alexabdre de Ségur繼承, 1963年Ségur後代出讓75%股份，由兩家英國公司瓜分，分別是Harveys of Bristol, Hallminster Limited, 亦開始了現代化改革。其後30年間，Latour輾轉被不同英國人擁有，直至1993年由法國商人Pinault買下，才再度回歸法國人手中。
Before knowing its history, let see how great it is. Hemingway, the famous novelist named his granddaughter as Margaux Hemingway and hoping her granddaughter will have the feminine charm when she grows up after he has drunk Margaux. Meanwhile, Margaux also was the designated wine for French state dinner; former President of the United States Thomas Jefferson list Margaux in his own wine list; having full marks in Robert Parker for 4 times.
Château Margaux born in the 12th century, it wasn’t the winery until Lestonnac’s family decided to change. However, when the winery owner Elie de Barry killed by Jacobin in the 17th century, Château became a state-own property. Luckily Laure de Fumel(the heir of the three big families) bough the Château. In the 18th century, led by the manager of winery Berlon, Margaux became famous. Berlon was the first person who brews the red wine and white wine separately and against picking grapes at the morning because of the losing taste. Andre Mentzelopoulos bought the winery in 1977 and reform the system. Margaux always is the representative of elegance.
講佢歷史之前，不如睇下佢有幾咁巴閉。大文豪海明威飲過呢個酒莊之後，將佢孫女名為Margaux Hemingway, 仲話希望撫養到孫女有Margaux咁嘅女性魅力。另外，佢都係法國國宴指定用酒; 時任美國駐法國大使，美國前總統Thomas Jefferson將佢列入個人分類中第一名; 四次係Robert Parker手中拎到滿分。
佢12世紀已經出世，一開始唔係葡萄園嚟嘅，直至Lestonnac家族種咗第一棵葡萄樹開始，就開始咗一個偉大嘅篇章。不過係17世紀時，當時酒莊莊主Elie de Barry被Jacobin送上斷頭臺之後，Château Margaux 被當係國有財產，公開拍賣。好彩Laure de Fumel (當時三大家族繼承人)力保不失，成功收回莊園。18世紀初，由酒莊總管Berlon帶領，一步步將Margaux走上王者殿堂。佢係第一個將紅白葡萄分開釀嘅人，亦都反對早上採收葡萄，因為露水會沖淡風味。1977年Andre Mentzelopoulos 買下酒莊，並進行一系列改革。直到依家，佢都係優雅嘅代表。
The only Château isn’t locating in Medoc, but from Graves, it is the smallest scale as well. Haut-Brion got famous in 1521, the dowry is the winery which locates in Huat-Brion when the mayor Libourne married his daughter to Jean de Pontac. Under Pontac operation, he expensed the winery and fixed the castle, these actions strengthen their foundation.
Dillon Family is very important in the history of the winery development. They are not only important in Wall Street but also are the figures of politics. Starting from the 3rd generation of Joan Dillon handling, the winery raised the profit fast and start the acquisition to the different winery.
唯一一個唔係位於Medoc產區嘅一級酒莊，佢係嚟自Graves產區，亦都係五大之中規模最細。1521年已經為人熟悉，市長Libourne將女兒嫁給Jean de Pontac時，嫁妝就是名為Huat-Brion的葡萄園。Jean de Pontac在經營期間，不斷擴張葡萄園面積並修建城堡，為日後的發展奠定穩固基礎。
講到酒莊的發展之路，Dillon Family是不可或缺的重要推手，佢地唔單止係華爾街擁有舉足輕重嘅地位，同時都係政壇要角。從第三代Joan Dillon接手經營後，酒莊獲利日益提升，陸續併購其它酒莊，目前由第四代Le Prince Robert de Luxembourg擔任總裁。Haut-Brion採用傳統與現代相結合的釀酒方式。令它保留傳統味道之餘又不落俗套。
Château Mouton Rothschild
This is about the story of diligence. In the beginning, Mouton only listed as 2eme cru in the 1855 classification. However, young Philippe de Rothschild decided to raise the quality of the land and negotiated with the 1855 official organization time by time. Finally, Jacques Chirac, Agriculture minister, decided Mouton can be 1eme cru in 1973. It is also the few Château that hasn’t traded by other people, own by Rothschild’s family from the start.
In 1945, Mouton decided to change the wine label each year and collaborate with artists. The salary of artists is the several boxes of wine from Mouton. It must be mention is the slogan on the label: Premier ne puis, second ne daigne, Mouton suis. (I‘m not the first, but unwilling to be second, I’m Mouton.), after 1973, the slogan changed to 「Premier je suis, second je fus. Mouton ne change」which mean (Now I’m the first, being second before, Mouton never change.). How’s the grand manner of Mouton.
呢個係努力嘅故事，話說1855分級時佢只係得到二級酒莊嘅第一名，不過年僅廿歲嘅Philippe de Rothschild決心提升呢塊地嘅質素，又不斷同1855分級制度官方周旋，最終佢係1973由當時農業部長Jacques Chirac決定晉升為一級酒莊。佢亦都係少數冇易過手嘅酒莊，由成立至今都係由Rothschild家族持有。
1945年，酒莊決定每年更換酒標，找當代藝術家合作，成為一個創舉。而藝術家嘅報酬，就係幾箱酒莊出產嘅酒。一定要提嘅就係酒標上嘅一句話「Premier ne puis, second ne daigne, Mouton suis」「我非第一，不甘第二，我是Mouton」，1973後便改成「Premier je suis, second je fus. Mouton ne change」即「今我第一，昔我居次，Mouton不變」。顯盡霸氣。